US economy stalls in fourth quarter, grows only 0.7 percent

US economy grows lower than expectations amid global slowdown and inventory glut

Photo by: Reuters
Photo by: Reuters

The Lower Manhattan skyline, One World Trade Center and Manhattan Bridge are seen in the background as a ferry with a U.S. flag cruises along the East River while carrying passengers (not pictured) to the 2016 Volkswagen Passat reveal in New York.

US economic growth braked sharply in the fourth quarter as businesses stepped up efforts to reduce an inventory glut and a strong dollar and tepid global demand weighed on exports.

Gross domestic product increased at a 0.7 percent annual rate, the Commerce Department said on Friday, as lower oil prices also continued to undermine investment by energy firms and unseasonably mild weather cut into consumer spending on utilities and apparel.

The pace of growth was in line with economists' expectations and followed 2 percent in the third quarter. The economy grew 2.4 percent in 2015 after a similar expansion in 2014.

But some of the impediments to growth - inventories and mild temperatures - are temporary and the economy is expected to snap back in the first quarter. Excluding inventories and trade, the economy grew at a pace of 1.6 percent.

Nevertheless, the GDP report could spark a fresh wave of selling on the stock market, which has been roiled by fears of anemic growth in both the United States and China.

The Federal Reserve on Wednesday acknowledged that growth "slowed late last year," but also noted that "labor market conditions improved further." The Fed, the US central bank, raised interest rates in December for the first time since June 2006. Though the Fed has not ruled out another hike in March, financial market volatility could see that delayed until June.

Small Inventory Build

In the fourth quarter businesses accumulated $68.6 billion worth of inventory. While that is down from $85.5 billion in the third quarter, it was a bit more than economists had expected, suggesting inventories could remain a drag on growth in the first quarter.

The small inventory build subtracted 0.45 percentage points from the first estimate of fourth-quarter GDP growth.

Consumer spending, which accounts for more than two-thirds of US economic activity, increased at a rate of 2.2 percent. That marked a step-down from 3.0 percent in the third quarter.

Unusually mild weather hurt sales of winter apparel in December and undermined demand for heating through the quarter.

With gasoline prices around $2 per gallon, a tightening labor market gradually lifting wages and house prices boosting household wealth, economists believe the slowdown in consumer spending will be short-lived.

A natural gas flare on an oil well pad burns as the sun sets outside Watford City, North Dakota January 21, 2016

The dollar, which has gained 11 percent against the currencies of the United States' trading partners since last January, likely remained a drag on exports, leading to a trade deficit that subtracted 0.47 percentage points from GDP growth in the fourth quarter.

The downturn in energy sector investment put more pressure on business spending on nonresidential structures. Spending on mining exploration, wells and shafts plunged by 38.7 percent after dropping by 47.0 percent in the third quarter.

Investment in mining exploration, wells and shafts fell 35 percent in 2015, the largest drop since 1986.

Oil prices have dropped more than 60 percent since mid-2014, forcing oil field companies such as Schlumberger (SLB.N) and Halliburton (HAL.N) to slash their capital spending budgets.

Business spending on equipment contracted at a 2.5 percent rate last quarter after rising at a pace of 9.9 percent in the third quarter. Investment in residential construction remained a bright spot, rising at a rate of 8.1 percent.

With consumer spending softening, inflation likely retreated in the fourth quarter. A price index in the GDP report that strips out food and energy costs increased at a rate of 1.2 percent, slowing from a pace of 1.4 percent in the third quarter.

TRTWorld, Reuters