Czech novelist, journalist and former dissident Ludvik Vaculik, who wrote the Two Thousand Words manifesto during the 1968 Prague Spring, has died at the age of 88.
Czech Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka said, “We will all remember him as an important and brave man of pen and word who was free and independent throughout his life and under any regime."
The Two Thousand Words manifesto written by Vaculik became a key document of the 1968 Prague spring reform movement.
Soviet-led forces invaded the country two months after Vaculik wrote the manifesto, which had contributed to the Kremlin’s decision to invade Czechoslovakia.
Vaculik supported the Communists when they took power in Czechoslovakia in 1948.
But in 1967, after writing a very critical speech at a writers' congress regarding the Communist Party, Vaculik was expelled from the party.
After being expelled from the Communist Party Vaculik published a novel called The Guinea Pigs In 1970 - a darkly humorous book about the cynicism in everyday life in the years after the pro-Soviet crackdown.
Following the anti-communist Velvet Revolution in 1989, Vaculik received several major state and literary awards.
His books includes a diary novel named “The Guinea Pigs,” “The Czech Dreambook,” a chronicle named “A Cup Of Coffee with My Interrogator” and “The Axe.”