The campaign is aimed at reducing the number of vermin in Indonesia's capital, which is one of the world's most polluted cities.
Residents of Indonesia's capital Jakarta will be paid $1.50 for every rat they catch.
The "Rat Eradication Movement" is aimed at cleaning up Jakarta, one of the world's most overcrowded and polluted megacities, where vermin are a common problem, especially in poor slum areas.
"There are many rats here, and big ones," Jakarta Deputy Governor Djarot Saiful Hidayat was quoted as saying on a government news website.
He urged people to avoid using firearms while capturing the rodents but did not specify whether they should be brought in dead or alive.
"If you miss your shot, the bullets could hit other people," the Jakarta Post quoted Hidayat as saying.
The paper said local officials will pass on rats to Jakarta's sanitation agency for burial.
Vietnam's capital Hanoi began a similar campaign when it was under French colonial rule. But the plan failed when many rat-catchers simply cut off the tails of the rats as proof before releasing them so that they could breed.