Super typhoon Nepartak hit eastern Taiwan early on Friday, driving thousands of people from their homes, disrupting power supplies and forcing the cancellation of more than 500 flights, emergency officials said.
Television broadcast images of strong wind and torrential rains brought by the year's first typhoon, whose approach had prompted Taiwan and neighbouring China to batten down the hatches.
As many as 15,400 people were evacuated from their homes in preparation for the storm, while 187,830 households suffered power outages, emergency officials said.
"The wind is very strong," said a resident of Taitung, the eastern Taiwan city where the typhoon hit land.
"Many hut roofs and signs on the street have been blown off," the resident, who gave only her surname, Cheng, told Reuters.
One death and 66 injuries had been reported. Bullet train service had been suspended, and more than 300 international and 254 domestic flights cancelled, an emergency services website showed.
Tropical Storm Risk has rated the typhoon as category 5, at the top of its ranking, but the super typhoon should weaken to a tropical storm by the time it hits China.
Typhoons are common at this time of year in the South China Sea, picking up strength over warm waters and dissipating over land.
Typhoons used to kill many people in China but the government now enforces evacuations and takes precautions well in advance, which has helped save many lives.
In 2009, Typhoon Morakot cut a wide swathe of destruction through southern Taiwan, killing about 700 people and causing damages of up to $3 billion.