Former Bosnian-Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, known as the "Butcher of Bosnia," was found guilty of the Srebrenica genocide, five counts of crimes against humanity and four counts of war crimes between 1992 to 1995 in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
United Nations tribunal judges delivering their verdict on Karadzic said on Thursday there was insufficient evidence to prove one of the two genocide charges against the former leader.
Presiding judge O-Gon Kwon said that Karadzic bears individual criminal responsibility for the three-year siege of Sarajevo. The judge said that he ordered a take over of Srebrenica before the massacre.
"The chamber is therefore convinced that the accused used this campaign of sniping and shelling causing terror among the civilian population in Sarajevo as a means of exerting pressure on the Bosnian Muslim leaders and the international community in pursuit of his political goals," the judge said.
The 70-year-old Karadzic was found guilty of ten out of 11 charges and sentenced to 40 years in prison.
Karadzic was "criminally responsible" for the murder, persecution and agreed to the killing of Bosnian Muslims males, the judge said.
The top UN human rights official welcomed the verdict against Karadzic on Thursday saying it showed that even powerful perpetrators of such crimes "must know that they will not escape justice."
Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein, in a statement issued after Karadzic was found guilty of war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide by the International Criminal Court, said his trial "should give pause to leaders across Europe and elsewhere who seek to exploit nationalist sentiments and scapegoat minorities."
Radovan Karadzic's lawyer said that his client will appeal the decision by UN judges.
Karadzic is the highest-ranking person to face the UN tribunal in the Hague over a war two decades ago in which at least 130,000 people died as rival armies carved up Bosnia along ethnic lines that largely survive today.
Karadzic defended himself throughout his 497-day trial and called 248 witnesses, pouring over many of the millions of pages of evidence with the help of a court-appointed legal adviser.
Among the main charges is that Karadzic, who was arrested in 2008 after 11 years on the run, controlled Serb forces that massacred 8,372 Muslim men and boys in Srebrenica in 1995 after overrunning the UN-designated "safe area."