Madagascar's parliament voted to impeach President Hery Rajaonarimampianina, by 121 votes out of 151, on Tuesday.
Lawmakers allege constitutional violations and incompetence, saying he has failed to deliver promised reforms after years of political crisis.
The country’s constitutional court will decide whether Rajaonarimampianina, who was elected at the end of 2013 after the country's first democratic elections since 2006, can be dismissed.
The Madagascan president has criticised the handling of impeachment vote against him, saying the nation needs stability during a speech on state radio. Some lawmakers have also alleged voting irregularities.
The Indian Ocean island country feel into chaos in 2009 when Rajaonarimampianina's predecessor Marc Ravalomanana was ousted in a coup. He was elected after promising a better life for Madagascar’s people, but his critics, including some of his former supporters, say he could not deliver the reforms he promised and "could not rule the country."
Before the late night vote, the United States warned the country’s lawmakers to put stability first and voiced support for the president, but that did not change the outcome.
Rajaonarimampianina's opponents also accuse him of stalling on the establishment of a high court and dragging the church into politics when half of Madagascar's peopleare not Christians.
The mineral-rich country has been struggling to rebuild its economy, after losing donors and investors following the military coup.
The International Monetary Fund resumed relations with Madagascar after elections in 2013, and many foreign donors began aid again.
Madagascar is one of the world's poorest countries, despite its reserves of nickel, cobalt, gold, uranium and other minerals, and suffers from regular power cuts.