Brazil supported India in its bid to enter the Nuclear Suppliers Group.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced stronger ties with Brazil after meeting with the country's President Michel Temer on Monday.
The meeting followed the 8th BRICS summit held at the Indian resort state of Goa.
BRICS is an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
"Relations between India and Brazil have grown for the better. We have increased interaction at all levels," Modi said.
During the summit BRICS nations agreed on several issues, including setting up their own credit-rating agency, fighting terrorism and stronger energy cooperation.
For India, the summit presented an opportunity to convince the leaders of four nations to support its entry into the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG).
China and Brazil has previously opposed the move.
But on Monday, India claimed to have gained Brazil's support.
"We thank Brazil for understanding India's aspiration for membership of the NSG," Modi said in his statement after the meeting.
During the summit, the bloc refrained from naming Pakistan-based Jaish-e-Mohammed as a terrorist group, as New Delhi desired, with China defending Pakistan.
Modi said India and Brazil have also agreed "that world must come together to fight this menace (terrorism) without distinction or discrimination."