The Kremlin says the move amounts to a full-scale trade war and an end to hopes for better ties with the Trump administration.
Russia was determined to defend its economic interests after the adoption of a new package of US sanctions against Moscow, the Kremlin said on Thursday.
The reaction came after US President Donald Trump grudgingly signed into law new sanctions against Russia on Wednesday but strongly criticised it.
"Nobody should doubt that Russia will protect and defend its interests," Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov told a conference call with reporters.
The sanctions Moscow said amounted to a full-scale trade war and an end to hopes for better ties with the Trump administration.
Reiterating Moscow's official stance, he said: "We in general believe that this policy of sanctions is short-sighted, unlawful and hopeless."
The Trump administration has shown its total weakness by handing over executive power to Congress in the most humiliating way— Dmitry Medvedev (@MedvedevRussiaE) August 2, 2017
The US establishment fully outwitted Trump. The President is not happy about the sanctions, yet he could not but sign the bill— Dmitry Medvedev (@MedvedevRussiaE) August 2, 2017
Congress passed the new sanctions to punish Russia over the election interference and the annexation of Ukraine's Crimea in 2014.
Trump said on Thursday that Washington's relationship with Russia is at an "an all-time and very dangerous low," and blamed Congress for the situation.
Our relationship with Russia is at an all-time & very dangerous low. You can thank Congress, the same people that can't even give us HCare!— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) August 3, 2017
He complained that the measure, which allows Congress to stop him from easing sanctions on Russia, infringed on presidential powers to shape foreign policy.
Trump's desire for better ties with Moscow has been hamstrung by the findings of US intelligence agencies that President Vladimir Putin's government meddled in the 2016 US presidential election campaign.
US congressional panels and a special counsel are investigating.
Moscow denies any meddling and Trump denies any collusion by his campaign.