The move comes as Malaysian officials accuse the opposition coalition of using fake news to win votes ahead of an election, amid criticism of the prime minister's handling of a corruption scandal.
Malaysia's government on Monday proposed new legislation to outlaw fake news with fines and up to a 10-year jail term for offenders. Critics slammed the move as an attempt to crack down on dissent ahead of a general election.
Prime Minister Najib Razak has been dogged by a multibillion-dollar corruption scandal involving an indebted state fund, and rights activists fear the new law could be used to criminalise reports on government misconduct and critical opinions. A general election must be held by August but is widely expected in the next few weeks.
The anti-fake news bill, tabled for parliamentary approval on Monday, calls for penalising those who create, offer, circulate, print or publish fake news or publications containing fake news with up to a 10-year jail term, a fine of up to $128,000 (500,000 ringgit) or both.
The bill defines fake news as "any news, information, data and reports which is, or are, wholly or partly false whether in the form of features, visuals or audio recordings or in any other form capable of suggesting words or ideas." It covers all mediums and extends to foreigners outside Malaysia as long as Malaysia or its citizens are affected.
"This is an attack on the press and an attempt to instill fear" among the people before the general election, opposition lawmaker Ong Kian Ming tweeted.
Anti fake news bill on the table of MPs. 500k fine and / or 10 years max jail sentence. This is an attack on the press and an attempt to instil fear among the rakyat before GE14. pic.twitter.com/Rh40tBPWof— Ong Kian Ming (@imokman) March 26, 2018
Officials target news not verified by the government
Government officials say the law is needed to protect social harmony and national security. They accuse the opposition coalition of using fake news as a key weapon to win votes and warned that any news on the indebted 1MDB state fund that had not been verified by the government is fake.
The US and several other countries are investigating allegations of cross-border embezzlement and money laundering at 1MDB, which was set up and previously led by Prime Minister Najib to promote economic development but which accumulated billions in debt.
The US Justice Department says at least $4.5 billion was stolen from 1MDB by associates of Najib, and it is working to seize $1.7 billion taken from the fund to buy assets in the US, potentially its largest asset seizure ever.
Najib, who denies any wrongdoing, has fired critics in his government and muzzled the media since the corruption scandal erupted three years ago.
Support for Najib's ruling coalition has dwindled in the last two elections. In 2013, it lost the popular vote for the first time to the opposition.
Najib likely to win a third term despite dwindling support
Yet analysts say Najib is expected to win a third term due to infighting in the opposition, changes to electoral boundaries unfavourable to the opposition, and strong support for the government among rural ethnic Malays.
Critics say the anti-fake news bill will add to a range of repressive laws, including a sedition law, a stiff press and publications act, an official secrets act and a security act, that have been used against critics, violated freedom of expression and undermined media freedom.
A coalition of human rights and civic groups also expressed concern that the government was rushing through the legislation, without consulting key stakeholders and releasing details in advance for public scrutiny.