The memorandum of understanding promises to establish a "framework of cooperation" that aims to create conditions for "voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable" repatriation of Rohingya refugees.
Myanmar and UN agencies signed an agreement on Wednesday that could lead to the return of some of the 700,000 Rohingya Muslims who fled brutal persecution by Myanmar's security forces and are now crowded into makeshift camps in Bangladesh.
The memorandum of understanding (MOU) promises to establish a "framework of cooperation" that aims to create conditions for "voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable" repatriation of Rohingya refugees.
Myanmar's security forces have been accused of rape, killing, torture and the burning of Rohingya homes in western Rakhine state, where most Rohingya lived. The UN and US have described the army crackdown that began in August last year as "ethnic cleansing."
Identity documents an issue
Myanmar and Bangladesh agreed in November to begin repatriating Rohingya. But refugees feared their lives would be at risk in Myanmar without international monitoring while Myanmar insisted they have identity documents, which most Rohingya have been denied.
Knut Ostby, UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator in Myanmar, said the agreement is an important first step toward resolving the crisis.
"There is a lot of work to be done. This task should not be underestimated," Ostby said. "We are talking about approximately 700,000 people who don't only have to return, but the conditions have to be right for them to return ... in terms of their identity in society, in terms of their safety and also in terms of services, livelihoods, a place to live, infrastructure."
The UN has said the agreement provides for its refugee and development agencies to be given access to Rakhine state.
It said that will allow the refugee agency to assess the situation and provide information to refugees about conditions in their areas of origin so that they can better decide whether they want to return.
Rights groups remain pessimistic that the safe return of Rohingya refugees will ever be possible. They point to a lack of firm commitments from Myanmar and its decades of hostility toward a minority that was denied citizenship by a 1982 law that excluded them from a list of the predominantly Buddhist nation's recognized ethnic groups.
"How will the Burmese government guarantee these people will not face again persecution?" said Kyaw Win, executive director of Burma Human Rights Network. "It is very politically convenient for the Burmese government to sign this agreement, and also never commit."