The court's decision came days after its watershed ruling that penalising abortion is unconstitutional, a major victory for reproductive rights activists.
The justices have voted 5-4 to overrule a state law that requires doctors who perform abortions to have admitting privileges at a nearby hospital.
If passed, the legislation will allow elective abortions in the first 14 weeks of gestation. Argentina currently allows it only in cases of rape or risks to a woman's health.
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