China in June 2019 won the bid to host the event but withdrew in May this year because of its "zero-Covid" policy, leaving the Asian Football Confederation scrambling to find a new host.
The Asian Football Confederation praised China for the "difficult choice" to withdraw as the country battles to stamp out the virus with rapid lockdowns and mass testing.
Khalifa will extend his reign as president until at least 2023, by which time he will have completed a 10-year spell in charge of the 47-member body.
As Qatar beat its political rival UAE at the Asian Cup semi-final, Emirati fans hurled shoes at the winning team and stormed the pitch.
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