Initial vaccine tests focus on safety, and researchers in both countries are trying out different doses of different types of shots. Second phase allows vaccines to be tested to look for signs that they protect against infection.
The US death toll was creeping toward the grim milestone of 10,000 as the pandemic's epicentre in New York racked up hundreds of lives lost a day and hospitals girded for an influx of new infected patients.
The US leads the list of countries with most Covid-19 infections with more than 300,000 cases, and a death toll that has climbed past 8,100; more than 3,500 of those deaths are in the state of New York.
The World Health Organization recommends masks for health workers, those who are sick and caregivers of those infected, but as the virus surges, individual countries are reviewing these guidelines.
Dr Anthony Fauci, speaking on CNN's “State of the Union” on Sunday, said as the federal government weighs withdrawing guidelines on social distancing in areas that have not been as hard-hit by the outbreak at the end of the nationwide 15-day effort.
Concerns are growing about the coronavirus pandemic and the Trump administration's handling of the US response.
We speak to Dr Arisina Ma, a physician working on the front line of the epidemic in Hong Kong, and sift through the many mixed messages surrounding the coronavirus pandemic.
After days of playing down the threat, he blamed the European Union for not acting quickly enough to address the novel coronavirus and claimed that US clusters were “seeded” by European travellers.
The novel coronavirus has reached some 30 US states, with Oregon the latest to declare an emergency, and 60 million people in California and New York are under crisis measures.
The novel coronavirus has infected more than 6,000 people in China and other countries. The most recent cases were confirmed in the UAE, making it the first Arab state with the virus.
More than 1,800 people have died in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo since Ebola broke out there in August last year.
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