Both of Spain's likely partners in government want to maintain Catalonia's position as an integral part of the country.
Around 80,000 people marched through the streets of Barcelona to show support for Spain a day after the city hosted two pro-independence protests.
Hundreds of people packed a square in front of Catalonia's regional government headquarters in Barcelona for a rally by the centre-right, pro-union Ciudadanos party.
Spain says some Catalan separatists are prepared to act violently to overthrow Spanish rule but activists say the charges of terrorism are contrived.
After 2017’s independence attempt and a crackdown by Spanish authorities, has support for independence in Catalonia declined.
Catalan separatists face 25 years in prison over charges related to a 2017 independence referendum.
Pro-independence Catalan leaders that flout the law are turning the question of independence into a counterproductive binary of good versus evil.
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