The step amounts to a victory for electric cars that if copied globally could hit the wealth of oil producers, as well as transform the car industry and one of the icons of 20th Century capitalism: the automobile itself.
Eike Luedeling, a professor at the University of Bonn's Institute of Crop Sciences and Resource Conservation, says that reforestation should not be seen as a substitute for curbing emissions from using fossil fuels.
Fiat Chrysler will pay $311 million in penalties to the Justice Department, at least $75 million to states investigating the excess emissions and additional funds to offset excess emissions and $280 million to settle a lawsuit by owners.
Some 14,000 firefighters are struggling in the midst of a sweltering summer to curb fires that have blackened an area nearly the size of Los Angeles.
The landmark case could have a huge impact for Germany's auto industry if the court rejects an appeal against implementing bans on diesel cars.
The number of people accused in connection with the "dieselgate" emissions cheating scandal has risen to 37 from 21.
A year after the VW emissions scandal, the German car giant has been hit with damage claims in the district where it is based in Germany.
Volkswagen might have agreed to one of the largest ever corporate settlements to tackle the emissions scandal, but industry insiders are now questioning whether that's enough.
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