France's push for a European army, greater autonomy from the US and its apologia for Russian expansionism raise questions about its commitment to NATO.
Without the UK military, the EU might need NATO protection more than ever, which can increase the political leverage of Turkey in Europe as a second biggest army in the alliance.
More than 50 years after the signing of the Elysee Treaty, Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Emmanuel Macron meet in Aachen to sign a new 16-page agreement.
Long before Brexit and before several European countries called for a European army on the margins of NATO, Turkey had stopped pursuing its long-term interest in joining the EU. A former EU minister explains why Ankara changed its course.
German proposal comes at a time when the EU is searching for answers to a US president who views the EU with contempt, to the rise of illiberal democracies and nationalist parties within its borders, and to Britain's vote to leave the bloc.
The plan does not envisage formation of a European army, though it foresees a planning centre for civilian and military missions being set up.
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