Gholamhossein Mohseni Ejei, a hardline cleric sanctioned by the West, takes the reins from Ebrahim Raisi, who was elected president last month.
Turkey has begun a fresh era of reforms in the economy and judiciary, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan says.
Polish President Andrzej Duda on Monday announced that he will veto two of three bills reforming the country's judiciary system.
The Turkish foreign ministry said statements by the spokesmen for the German chancellor and foreign ministry constituted "diplomatic rudeness" and the judiciary cannot be instructed or counseled by anyone.
Polish President Andrzej Duda made a surprise compromise bid over controversial court reforms that aim to expand the justice minister's powers as thousands of protesters took to the streets over the proposed changes.
The country's top Constitutional Court says no-confidence votes can be held in secret against South Africa's President Jacob Zuma.
Opposition parties say that many of the ruling party's members of parliament would vote to get rid of President Jacob Zuma if there was a secret ballot.
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