TRT World takes a look at events that have taken place a year after India's annexation of the former semi-autonomous state of Kashmir.
Pakistan finds itself in the middle of the 21st century's defining geopolitical war, and the strategic implications for Islamabad are huge.
Stand-off between Indian and Chinese border troops is the culmination of festering tensions between the two sides over territory that has been contested for more than a century.
The border spat could accelerate existing trends of geopolitical and economic divergence between Beijing and New Delhi, with far-reaching consequences for the region too.
Indian prime minister’s bellicosity is missing from the scene as the country mourns soldiers killed in hand-to-hand clashes with Chinese troops.
An official Communist Party newspaper said clashes occurred because India misjudged the Chinese army’s strength and willingness to respond. Indo-China border flare-ups follow New Delhi's unilateral action in disputed Kashmir in August 2019.
Top generals of both sides meet in a Himalayan outpost in Chinese-controlled Kashmir, in a bid to end the latest frontier showdown between the powerful armies. It wasn't immediately clear what the talks yielded.
Indian Defence Minister Rajnath Singh says New Delhi will not let its "pride be hurt" in its latest tensions with China in disputed Himalayan region and that India has turned down mediation offer by US President Trump.
"United States is ready, willing and able to mediate or arbitrate their now raging border dispute," US President Trump tweets, as troops of both countries remain locked in a standoff in India-administered Kashmir's Ladakh region.
Indian observers say thousands of troops from both sides face each other in Galwan Valley following controversial Indian construction in high-altitude Ladakh area of India-administered Kashmir, scene of a brief but bloody war in 1962 that India lost.
As early as 1948, the legal advisor to the British Foreign Office questioned the validity of New Delhi's Kashmir treaty and argued that Kashmir's temporary accession to India would not settle the status of the disputed region.
China and India have a long history of territorial disputes along their shared border. Beijing says India has undermined China's territorial sovereignty by revoking Article 370 unilaterally.
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