Iranian President Hassan Rouhani's statement comes hours after US President Donald Trump said he was willing to have talks with Iran.
President Hassan Rouhani said the resignation of Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif was against Iran's national interests. Zarif is a key supporter of the president who is facing pressure over Trump's shredding of a multiparty nuclear deal.
Two-day meeting in Astana aimed at ending Syrian conflict will address developments in de-escalation zones, release of captives and forming a constitutional committee.
Mohammad Javad Zarif is in China on the first leg of a diplomatic offensive that aims to keep the deal alive and limit damage from US sanctions after the US pulled out of the Iran nuclear deal.
As Turkish, Russian and Iranian foreign ministers hold talks in Astana, they agree that Syria's future must be secured "without outside political interference," and underlined the need for humanitarian access to the areas affected by the conflict.
Russia - one of the parties to the Iran pact alongside the United States, China, France, Britain, Germany and the EU - calls an ultimatum offered by Trump on the deal "extremely negative."
Under the bill, the armies of the two countries will also be able to carry out joint exercises, which are according to Turkey aimed at promoting regional peace.
Trump and Saudi King Salman accused Iran of spreading "terrorism" during a gathering of leaders from 50 Muslim-majority countries.
The Foreign ministers of Russia, Iran and the Syrian regime met on Friday and repeated their condemnation of US airstrikes on a Syrian airbase.
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