The 15th plane carrying the hardware for long-range air defence system arrived in Turkey's capital Ankara on Thursday.
"We call on the United States to reverse this decision. It's a mistake that will cause irreparable damage to our strategic relations," a statement from the Turkish Foreign Ministry said on Thursday.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan says Turkey is aiming to develop the defence industry and protect peace in the region.
US State Department spokeswoman Morgan Ortagus said Ankara would face "real and negative consequences" for acquiring Russian S-400 defence systems.
US President Donald Trump said during his meeting with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan that Turkey was not allowed to buy Patriot missiles by Obama administration and "we are looking at different solutions."
Ahead of the crucial NATO and G-20 meetings, the country's defence minister reached out to opposition parties to send a strong message to Washington.
Former Pakistan intelligence head General Ehsanul Haq and former deputy chief of Indian Air Force Kapil Kak say US defence missiles are no match to tested Russian defence system. Washington has warned Turkey and India against buying S-400s.
"Turkey fulfills all NATO requirements ... We strongly reject linking this matter with the F-35 [fighter jet programme]," Turkey's Defence Minister Hulisi Akar says.
In a letter, the Turkish defence minister called for mutual respect and friendship after the US backtracked on offering F-35 training to pilots in response to Turkey purchasing Russian-made S-400 defence systems.
Turkey's Treasury and Finance Ministry said, "we sadly see that very positive developments are being ignored," in response to Moody's move to downgrade Turkey's rating.
Erdogan also vowed to seek answers on Turkey's "exclusion from F-35 project for reasons that have no rational or legitimate basis", adding that Turkey was not only a customer but also a programme partner of the F-35 project.
Ankara is preparing a response to the letter announcing shortening of F-35 pilot training programme, Turkish defence minister says
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