As pro-Iranian militias lay a siege around Baghdad's high-security zone, where top offices and embassies are located, experts see it as yet another test for the Iraqi government to restore its compromised sovereignty.
For the first time in 38 years, Israel has attacked Iraqi territory, striking two major Shiite militia camps and courting an escalation with Tehran.
Iranian President Hassan Rouhani has recently adopted an unusually aggressive tone against Washington and with his Iraq visit, experts say the Shia leader wants to send a message to both his internal and external rivals that he can hold his ground.
As Trump administration plans to withdraw US troops from northern Syria, it remains to be seen whether Iran-backed militias will scale back or continue their operations in the region.
Syrian regime leader Bashar al Assad has mobilised a coalition of forces backed by Russia and Iran to retake eastern Aleppo, which fell to opposition forces in 2012.
Mustafa Badreddine (55) was killed in an attack near a Hezbollah base close to the Damascus Airport in Syria.
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