Meanwhile, President Ashraf Ghani has announced his new Cabinet even as he squabbles with his main political challenger over last year's election results.
With an election coming up in November, Trump is keen to make good on pledge to end America's longest war, but observers say it appears the Taliban have yet to be convinced to come to the negotiating table with Kabul.
Isolated attacks take place, reports say, on first day of "violence reduction period" which if observed successfully will lead to US-Taliban deal and a subsequent pullout of US troops after nearly two decades in country.
Relatives say the victims were driving home from a picnic when their truck was hit in eastern Nangarhar province on Friday. Officials are ascertaining whether US or Afghan government targeted the passengers.
The surge in hostilities signals a deadlock at stop-start peace talks involving US and Taliban negotiators in Doha.
Insurgents dug a tunnel in volatile Sangin district and then blew it up before their fighters could attack the compound.
After the bomber detonated the explosives-laden car, a group of insurgents stormed the compound and engaged fire with Afghan forces.
The Taliban claimed they were behind a fatal roadside bombing in northern Kunduz province, that had killed the US soldier. A Taliban spokesman even tweeted a purported photo ID of the slain US soldier, without saying how it was obtained.
At least 70 people have been wounded in a suicide bombing and assault on Bagram Air Base north of capital Kabul.
"At around 5 pm this evening a mine planted by the Taliban terrorists hit a civilian car ... killing 15 civilians and wounding two more," says Nasrat Rahimi, an Interior Ministry spokesman.
They were travelling in a car and stopped at a Taliban checkpoint on the road, Paktia governor spokesman Abdullah Hasrat said. The Taliban has long targeted the judiciary in retaliation for harsh sentences given to their fighters.
A UN report said 2,563 civilians were killed and 5,676 were wounded in the first nine months of this year. Insurgents were responsible for 62 percent of the casualties.
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