Prayuth wins 264 votes in House of Representatives against 208 no confidence votes amid speculations his own political allies might try to topple him.
About 1,000 protesters gather near Grand Palace in capital Bangkok demanding end to constitution drafted by military after 2014 coup.
A student-led protest movement has campaigned since last year for the government to step down, seeking a more democratic constitution and for the monarchy to be reformed to make it more accountable.
Office of the Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha announced that he was not quitting, ignoring protesters' Saturday night deadline to resign.
Protesters gathered in Bangkok for the most ambitious rally so far in a pro-democracy campaign that has shaken up the government and Thailand's conservative establishment.
The world’s most famous energy drink brand is caught up in anti-democracy protests.
Demonstrations come after Thailand's election panel asked Constitutional Court to dissolve the opposition Future Forward Party, accusing it of infringing laws by accepting multimillion-dollar loans from its leader.
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