The Taliban regime may last longer than before, as it controls more territory and could see global recognition. But holding onto power would require it to make a break with its past.
Attacks in southern Uruzgan and Helmand and northern Kunduz claim at least 23 lives, including civilians, officials say.
The clashes came a day after the Taliban said they had killed 28 Afghan paramilitary policemen in Uruzgan in southern Afghanistan.
Afghan forces deployed to beat back Taliban fighters in Ghazni province, heavily populated by minority Hazaras, raising fears of sectarian violence. The escalation comes as Afghan government and Taliban meet for first direct peace talks in Moscow.
Afghan security sources say the attack possibly targeted a minibus in a crowded market in western Kabul.
In 2015, Kunduz became the first city to fall to the Taliban in 14 years. Since then, the city has been on the verge of being seized four more times.
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