The four reportedly quit over differences with the government on how to handle the deteriorating security situation that has seen attacks from Daesh and the Taliban escalate.
"We are waiting for Pakistan to act," Afghanistan's president said, accusing Pakistan of being the "Taliban centre". Meanwhile, the Pakistani foreign ministry has urged Kabul to reach a settlement among different Afghan groups.
The protest, in which dozens of people burnt flags and chanted, "Death to Pakistan", comes during a period of heightened tension in the Afghan capital following two major attacks in the past two weeks.
The visit comes amid anger in Afghanistan over two recent attacks in Kabul that killed more than 120 people, which the government blames on Haqqani network militants believed to operate out of Pakistan.
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