The meeting of Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al Thani lasted three hours and was closed to the press.
After arriving in Qatar's capital Doha on Thursday afternoon, the Turkish president and the Qatari emir held a meeting at the Pearl Palace to discuss "mutual relations between the two friendly and brotherly countries."
President Erdogan was in the capital for a day-long official visit.
Qatari Defence Minister Khalid bin Muhammad al Attiyah and other officials welcomed Turkish president at the airport.
Erdogan was accompanied by Finance Minister Berat Albayrak and National Defence Minister Hulusi Akar.
Turkey's Communications Director Fahrettin Altun, presidential spokesman Ibrahim Kalin and intelligence organisation chief Hakan Fidan were also among the Turkish delegates.
The Qatar visit is the first overseas visit by Erdogan since the beginning of the novel coronavirus outbreak.