The militant attack on a police base in the north of the country also left one police officer dead and seven officers injured, police said.
Burkina Faso authorities said 18 "terrorists" were killed when they attempted to attack a police base in the north of the country, where security services have been struggling to quell a rising militant revolt.
"The attackers were repulsed thanks to a prompt response," police said in a statement after Wednesday's assault in Arbinda, Soum Province.
One police officer was killed and seven officers were injured, the statement added.
Weapons, motorcycles and GPS equipment belonging to the militants were recovered from the scene.
It comes after the Burkina Faso army said it had killed 32 "terrorists" last week in two operations in the north of the impoverished and politically fragile Sahel country.
The country's badly equipped, poorly trained and underfunded security forces have been unable to stem militant violence, which has intensified throughout 2019 to become almost daily.
Attacks have been claimed by a range of militant groups, including Al Qaeda and Daesh.
The Sahel region, including Burkina Faso's neighbours Mali and Niger, has been afflicted by the violence despite the presence of the regional G5 Sahel force as well as troops from the US and former colonial power France.