The IMF predicts that the global economy will shrink 4.9 percent this year, calculating damages worse than from any other downturn since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The International Monetary Fund has sharply lowered its forecast for global growth this year because it envisions far more severe economic damage from the coronavirus than it did just two months ago.
The IMF predicts that the global economy will shrink 4.9 percent this year, significantly worse than the 3 percent drop it had estimated in its previous report in April. The IMF said that the global economic damage from the recession will be worse than from any other downturn since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
US GDP to further plummet
For the United States, it predicts that the nation’s gross domestic product –– the value of all goods and services produced in the United States –– will plummet 8 percent this year, even more than its April estimate of a 5.9 percent drop. That would be the worst such annual decline since the US economy demobilised in the aftermath of World War II.
The IMF issued its bleaker forecasts on Wednesday in an update to the World Economic Outlook it released in April. The update is generally in line with other recent major forecasts. Earlier this month, for example, the World Bank projected that the global economy would shrink 5.2 percent this year.
'Worst recession since the Great Depression'
“This is the worst recession since the Great Depression,” Gita Gopinath, the IMF's chief economist, told reporters at a briefing.
“No country has been spared.”
The IMF noted that the pandemic was disproportionately hurting low-income households, “imperilling the significant progress made in reducing extreme poverty in the world since 1990.”
In recent years, the proportion of the world’s population living in extreme poverty –– equivalent to less than $1.90 a day –– had fallen below 10 percent from more than 35 percent in 1990. But the IMF said the Covid-19 crisis threatens to reverse this progress. It forecasts that more than 90 percent of developing and emerging market economies will suffer declines in per-capita income growth this year.
The #COVID19 pandemic has had a more negative impact than anticipated, and the recovery is projected to be more gradual amidst a lot of uncertainty. What can countries do? #WEO https://t.co/WpXSzg9YxA pic.twitter.com/8o1yaZDHCu— IMF (@IMFNews) June 24, 2020
Rebound in 2021 sans second wave
For 2021, the IMF envisions a rebound in growth, so long as the viral pandemic doesn’t erupt in a second major wave. It expects the global economy to expand 5.4 percent next year, 0.4 percentage point less than it did in April.
For the United States, the IMF predicts growth of 4.5 percent next year, 0.2 percentage point weaker than in its April forecast. But that gain wouldn’t be enough to restore the US economy to its level before the pandemic struck.
The association of economists who officially date recessions in the United States determined that the economy entered a recession in February, with tens of millions of people thrown out of work from the shutdowns that were imposed to contain the virus.
The US government has estimated that the nation’s GDP shrank at a 5 percent annual rate in the January-March quarter, and it is widely expected to plunge at a 30 percent rate or worse in the current April-June period.
The IMF predicts the US economy will contract 3x worse this year than in 2009 during the Great Recession.— Heather Long (@byHeatherLong) June 24, 2020
2020 GDP forecast: -8%
2009 GDP: -2.5%
That's how severe the coronavirus recession is. And the impacts are falling mainly on low-income workers.https://t.co/ro5EzgI6ti pic.twitter.com/cuRv8RDNjR
Growth downgraded from EU to China
In its updated forecast, the IMF downgraded growth for all major countries. For the 19 European nations that use the euro currency, it envisions a decline in growth this year of 10.2 percent –– more than the 8 percent drop it predicted in April –– followed by a rebound to growth of 6 percent in 2021.
In China, the world’s second-largest economy, growth this year is projected at 1 percent. India’s economy is expected to shrink 4.5 percent after a longer period of lockdown and a slower recovery than was envisioned in April.
In Latin America, where most countries are still struggling to contain infections, the two largest economies, Brazil and Mexico, are projected to shrink 9.1 percent and 10.5 percent, respectively.
A steep fall in oil prices has triggered deep recessions in oil-producing countries, with the Russian economy expected to contract 6.6 percent this year and Saudi Arabia’s 6.8 percent.
The IMF cautioned that downside risks to the forecast remain significant. It said the virus could surge back, forcing renewed shutdowns and possibly renewed turmoil in financial markets similar to what occurred in January through March. The IMF warned that such financial turbulence could tip vulnerable countries into debt crises that would further hamper efforts to recover.
Its updated forecast included a downside scenario that envisions a second major outbreak occurring in early 2021.
Under this scenario, the global economy would contract again next year by 4.9 percent, it estimates.