In Athens, Helsinki, London, Paris and Stockholm, demonstrators hit the streets against tightening of anti-Covid measures, including the introduction of vaccine passports, aimed at halting the spread of the Omicron variant of the coronavirus.
Thousands of people have gathered in European capitals to protest vaccine passports and other requirements governments have imposed in hopes of ending the coronavirus pandemic.
Demonstrations took place in Athens, Helsinki, London, Paris and Stockholm on Saturday.
Marches in Paris drew hundreds of demonstrators protesting the introduction of a new Covid-19 pass from Monday.
French media reported that demonstrators also marched by the hundreds in other cities.
The new rules will severely restrict the lives of those who refuse to get vaccinated by banning them from domestic flights, sports events, bars, cinemas and other leisure venues.
Opponents of the policy say the reinforced measures will impinge upon daily "freedoms" and railed against what they dubbed a form of social "apartheid".
Paris saw four rallies largely attended by supporters of nationalist politician and anti-EU presidential candidate Florian Philippot, some of them parents who brought their children along.
Many of those marching against the latest tightening of rules against the un-jabbed did not wear masks as they set off waving French flags and bearing banners demanding "freedom", "truth" and urging "no to apartheid".
In Sweden, where vaccine certificates are required to attend indoor events with more than 50 people, some 3,000 demonstrators marched though central Stockholm and assembled in a main square for a protest organised by the Frihetsrorelsen, or Freedom Movement.
Swedish media reported that representatives from the neo-Nazi Nordic Resistance Movement attended the action with a banner. Police closely monitor the group, which has been associated with violent behaviour at demonstrations.
Swedish security police had warned that right-wing extremists might take part in Saturday's protest. No major incidents or clashes were reported by late afternoon.
A similar demonstration with some 1,000 participants was held also in Goteborg, Sweden’s second-largest city.
Meanwhile, the Finnish government authorised local and regional authorities just before Christmas to introduce “extensive and full measures” in response to rising virus cases involving the Omicron variant.
The restrictions included limiting or prohibiting events, moving university classes online, limiting restaurant service and closing venues where people have a higher risk of exposure. Restaurants and events are allowed to require vaccine passports.
Police said some 4,000 people marched on through the streets of central Helsinki to protest. A group called World Wide Demonstration organised the demonstration. No unrest or violence was reported to police.