The list is surprising as it includes countries that are believed to be strong advocates of human rights.
In response to nationwide outrage over a recent rise in rape cases against women and children in Pakistan, lawmakers on Wednesday passed a new anti-rape legislation to expedite trials and allow for the chemical castration of convicted offenders.
The bill states that Pakistan's government must ensure sexual abuse cases are decided "expeditiously, preferably within four months”.
Chemical castration is performed through injection or tablets to reduce libido or sexual activity. The drugs also reduce the circulation of testosterone to a very low level.
In a statement last December when the bill was announced, Amnesty International said the penalty of chemical castration was "cruel and inhuman" .
Punishments like this will do nothing to fix a flawed criminal justice system. Instead of trying to deflect attention, the authorities should focus on the crucial work of reforms that will address the root causes of sexual violence and give survivors the justice they deserve and the protection they need.” Rimmel Mohydin, South Asia Campaigner at Amnesty International, said.
Countries that punish rapists through castration include:
South Korea: The law passed in 2011 allows chemical castration for convicted child molesters who are at risk of repeating their crimes. The country sentenced a 31-year-old convicted pedophile to 15 years in jail and ordered their first-ever chemical castration.
United States: Seven US states - California, Florida, Guam, Iowa, Louisiana, Montana and Wisconsin – legalised the chemical castration of rapists and molesters as a condition of sentencing or as a means of early release.
In California and Florida, sex offenders who are at the risk of repeating their crimes are to undergo chemical castration, and judges can use their discretion for first-time offenders, according to FindLaw, a legal website.
The Czech Republic: It is the only country that allows the surgical route, where the sex glands are removed through an incision. This law was introduced in 1966.
The country holds one of the highest numbers of men worldwide who have undergone the irreversible process of surgical castration, according to a report published in 2019.
The law is criticised by the human rights body for continuing to castrate male sex offenders surgically.
Ukraine: In July 2019, the country’s parliament approved to chemically castrate rapists even if the state needs to exert force on the convict.
It applies to people aged between 18 and 65 who are found guilty of raping or sexually abusing minors.
The law also carries up to 15 years in prison for raping minors and up to five years in prison for sexual acts involving minors.
Nigeria: One state in the country, the northwestern Kaduna state, introduced sterilisation as a penalty for child rape.
Under the new law, men convicted of pedophilia will be surgically castrated, while women will undergo salpingectomy, a procedure where the fallopian tubes are removed.
The death penalty will follow the castration if the victim is under the age of 14. If they are over 14, they will serve a life sentence.