Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, many Muslim-majority countries have imposed restrictions on worshippers, including night-time curfews, and called for prayers to be performed at home during the fasting month.
The holy fasting month of Ramadan has begun across several countries and comes as much of the world has been hit by an intense new coronavirus wave.
For many Muslims navigating restrictions, that means hopes of a better Ramadan than last year have been dashed with the surge in infection rates though regulations vary in different countries.
A time for fasting, worship and charity, Ramadan is also when people typically congregate for prayers, gather around festive meals to break their daylong fast, throng cafes and exchange visits.
Once again, some countries are imposing new restrictions. But concern is high that the month's communal rituals could stoke a further surge.