The charges of "genocide" against Jeanine Anez pertain to the 2019 protests in the country in which a total of 22 people died and carries a sentence of 10 to 20 years in prison.
The Bolivian prosecutor's office said it had filed charges of "genocide" and other crimes against former acting president Jeanine Anez, over the death of 20 opposition protesters in 2019.
Attorney General Juan Lanchipa said on Friday that he had presented documents "against citizen Jeanine Anez" before the country's Supreme Court of Justice, including charges for "genocide," which carries a sentence of 10 to 20 years in prison, according to the Bolivian penal code.
Dozens killed during political clashes
The conservative Anez came to power in November 2019 after her predecessor and rival, former president Evo Morales, resigned following weeks of protest over his controversial reelection to an unconstitutional fourth term.
He fled the country after an election audit by the Organization of American States (OAS) found evidence of fraud.
After the election, at least 37 people died in violence that flared between supporters and opponents of Morales, as well as between protesters and the security forces.
Most of the deaths came in clashes between Morales supporters and security forces after the socialist leader's flight.
The specific accusation against Anez relates to two incidents in November 2019 in which a total of 22 people died.
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A report released by the OAS on Tuesday described those incidents as "massacres."
Lanchipa said they had been "provisionally classified as genocide, serious and minor injury, and injury followed by death."
After Morales resigned, Anez was the most senior parliamentarian left and was sworn in by congress as interim president despite the lack of a quorum, with legislators from Morales' Movement for Socialism (MAS) boycotting the session.
MAS cried foul and accused the interim government of having pulled off a coup.
Under Anez's administration, Bolivia held peaceful, transparent elections in October 2020 in which Morales's protege Luis Arce stormed to a landslide victory.
He subsequently vowed to go after those he accused of staging a coup.
Anez was arrested in March 2021 on accusations of leading a coup against Morales, including charges of terrorism, sedition and conspiracy. She has remained in pre-trial detention since then.
Her detention drew widespread international condemnation.