National Security Adviser Robert O'Brien said the United States would continue "to identify and sanction those responsible for extinguishing Hong Kong's freedom."
The arrested include current and former opposition lawmakers, according to their political parties and media reports.
Hong Kong public libraries have placed certain books under review to see whether they "violate the stipulations" of a new national security law that China imposed on the financial hub.
Anti-Beijing protesters plan to hold demonstrations on Thursday evening in support of Catalan protests, which re-started over jail sentences handed out to nine separatist leaders.
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