Demonstrators are concerned that a court decision that orders teaching in public schools to be at least 25% in Spanish would threaten their educational system.
As secessionist movements gather momentum globally, countries without an institution to review the grievances of these groups are likely to experience economic crises.
Madrid hails European Parliament’s decision to lift the immunity of Carles Puigdemont and two other Catalan separatist lawmakers, saying it showed the Catalonia issue was to be resolved within Spain.
The nine-month sentence of Pablo Hasel, known for his virulently anti-establishment raps, has prompted debate over freedom of expression in Spain and sparked protests that have at times turned violent.
But the deal announced on Tuesday still won't provide enough votes in parliament for the Socialists, who won Sunday's election, to take office without the support of other parties.
Police said they carried out 10 raids and seized an abundance of material and substances they believe could be used to make explosives.
Around 200,000 people march through Barcelona against the high-profile trial of Catalan separatist leaders that started this week, which they dismiss as a farce.
Protests against his arrest on charges of charges of "rebellion" and "sedition" broke out in Catalonia barely hours after his arrest in Germany, where he is expected to appear in court on Monday.
Europe has been shaken by new political crises this year, with Catalan independence movement and Brexit raising fears that recent events may embolden separatists elsewhere on the continent.
Catalan leaders pledge to hold the binding independence referendum, in a move the Constitutional Court has deemed illegal.
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