Tobacco companies have used celebrities like British singer Lily Allen and Oscar-winning actor Rami Malek in posts to promote e-cigarettes.
Scientists found that current and former e-cigarette users were 1.3 times more likely to develop chronic lung disease, while tobacco smokers increased their risk by a factor of 2.6.
Following a wave of vaping-related illnesses and deaths, top officials say the search for answers is only getting more difficult.
Public health officials are still at a loss to explain the cause of the severe lung illnesses, which have now reached 1,080 cases across 48 states and one US territory so far, up from 805 cases last week.
India has 106 million adult smokers, second only to China in the world, making it a lucrative market for companies producing vaping products.
At least six people have died in the US recently after vaping in an outbreak that has sickened hundreds with severe pulmonary disease and left several teenagers in induced comas.
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