Nadal, a 22-time Grand Slam champion, will play Nick Kyrgios for a place in Sunday's final.
Djokovic was deported from Melbourne in January due to his refusal to be vaccinated, forcing him to abandon his quest for the 10th Australian Open title.
Spanish tennis star Rafael Nadal, 36, beat world Number 8 Casper Ruud from Norway 6-3, 6-3, 6-0 in the final held at Paris' Court Philippe-Chatrier.
Poland's Iga Swiatek continued her march towards a second French Open title in three years when she demolished Russian Daria Kasatkina 6-2 6-1 to reach the final.
Novak Djokovic sees off Monte Carlo Masters champion Stefanos Tsitsipas to claim the last major tournament before French Open, while Iga Swiatek beats Ons Jabeur to retain the women's title.
A British court declared tennis legend bankrupt in 2017 after he failed to pay a long-standing debt.
Barty, the first Australian woman into the final of her home Grand Slam since 1980, is looking to add to her 2019 French Open and 2021 Wimbledon titles.
Organisers say 34-year-old Novak Djokovic, who had repeatedly declined to reveal his vaccination status, applied for a medical exemption, which was granted after a "rigorous review process".
Djokovic so far has declined to disclose his vaccination status amid local media reports that everyone on the entry list needed to be vaccinated or have a medical exemption.
Naomi Osaka has struggled for form after withdrawing from French Open in May after a row with tournament officials over required media appearances.
Medvedev, playing in his third major final, at last hoisted a Grand Slam trophy while avenging a straight sets defeat by Djokovic earlier this year in the Australian Open final.
Emma Raducanu has become the youngest Grand Slam champion in 17 years, ending the tournament as the first player since Serena Williams in 2014 to not drop a set in the US Open.
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