The Polish Constitutional Court's ruling on finding some EU treaties articles incompatible started a debate on Polexit, Poland's possible departure from the EU.
Tensions have risen between Poland and the bloc with the ruling of Poland's Constitutional Court earlier this month, which said the country's national laws take precedence over some EU legislation.
Dismissed deputy prime minister Gowin's party holds 10 seats in the 460-seat lower house of parliament and their departure would deprive the government of its majority and could force it to seek the support of the far right.
Jan Grabiec, a spokesperson for the main opposition Civic Platform party, says it was a "symbolic moment" when the government lost a steady majority that it held for six years.
The exit poll, conducted by the research firm Ipsos, projected that Law and Justice won 43.6% of the votes.
German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier has asked Poland's forgiveness during a ceremony to mark 80 years since the start of World War II in the Polish city of Wielun. Nearly six million Poles died in the conflict.
The incident comes amid a bitter stand-off between Poland and Israel over how to remember the Holocaust.
Experts argue that the decision to pull out of the Jerusalem summit over the Poland row shows that the Visegrad countries are united against any form of racism.
The United Nations Migration Pact is the first international document to establish principles for dealing with refugees and migrants and the US wants nothing to do with it.
Poland's Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki comes under fire at the Munich Security Conference after claiming that "Jewish perpetrators" were involved in the Holocaust during World War II.
Defence minister Antoni Macierewicz, foreign minister Witold Waszczykowski and environment minister Jan Szyszko lose jobs as Premier Morawiecki tries to mend ties with EU partners.
Polish parliament to vote on a new government next Tuesday, and any ministerial changes are expected to be announced after that.
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