China released some details of the legislation late Saturday, heightening fears that the central government is tightening its grip on Hong Kong after months of anti-government protests last year.
The vote came as people in Hong Kong marked the 31st anniversary of China sending tanks and troops to crush students' protests in Beijing's Tiananmen Square.
Many people in Hong Kong plan to commemorate the bloody 1989 crackdown by Chinese troops in and around Tiananmen Square by lighting candles across the city, circumventing a ban on the usual public gathering amid the coronavirus pandemic.
The US and the UK both criticised the arrests of anti-Beijing movement supporters included Democratic Party founder and barrister Martin Lee, 81, millionaire publishing tycoon Jimmy Lai, 71, and former lawmaker and barrister Margaret Ng, 72.
The first elections in Hong Kong following the months-long pro-democracy protests drew an unprecedented number of voters, with analysts expecting the pro-democracy camp to make gains although still falling short of a majority.
The legislation is aimed at protecting human rights in Hong Kong amid China's crackdown on a pro-democracy protest movement.
Anti-Beijing protesters plan to hold demonstrations on Thursday evening in support of Catalan protests, which re-started over jail sentences handed out to nine separatist leaders.
Organisers say "almost two million" people turned out for mammoth protest in a vehement show of opposition to proposed legislation that has stoked fears of expanding control from China.
Chinese state media characterises the demonstrations in Hong Kong as a "riot" and accusing protesters of "violent acts." State-run daily says that protesters are using the extradition bill "to tarnish the image of the government."
Sunday's vote was triggered after Beijing forced the disqualification of six rebel lawmakers who had swept to victory in citywide elections in 2016.
Hong Kongers will head to legislative council polls next week to fill four seats that were left vacant after its members were disqualified over the 2016 oath-taking saga.
Joshua Wong, Nathan Law and Alex Chow helped lead the largely peaceful "Umbrella Movement" that blocked major roads for 79 days in 2014, demanding Beijing grant Hong Kong full democracy.
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