The election is the sixth parliamentary poll for Europe's youngest country since 2008, when it declared independence from Serbia.
The victory of the two opposition parties was a heavy rebuke to parties led by former guerrillas who battled Serbia in the 1990s, paving the way for Kosovo's independence.
Sunday's snap poll was called after former prime minister Ramush Haradinaj resigned in July.
Ramush Haradinaj resigned as prime minister a week ago so as “not to be questioned as the country’s leader.” He's to be questioned by a special court investigating alleged war crimes
Ramush Haradinaj says he was resigning after being called to The Hague war crimes court linked to Kosovo's violent independence struggle.
Kosovo parliament passes bills laying the groundwork for creating Kosovo's own army but Serbia says the decision will have "unforeseeable consequences" for the security in the region.
Serbia President Aleksandar Vucic planned to visit a Serb-populated village in central Kosovo, but Kosovo Albanians blocked roads leading to the region.
Serbia aims to join the EU by 2025, a date set by Brussels as it looks to bring Western Balkan nations into its fold.
The European Union unveiled a new plan on Tuesday to grant membership to some Balkan states by 2025, but said they must first resolve all border disputes to join the bloc.
Serbia has charged Kosovo’s Prime Minister Ramush Haradinaj with murdering Serbs in the late 1990s war. Haradinaj, who has twice been tried and acquitted by the UN war crimes tribunal in the Hague, denies any wrongdoing.
Europe's youngest state faces multiple challenges that threaten its viability as a state. From the EU to Serbia, Kosovo faces a perilous path ahead.
About 1.9 million Kosovars, nearly half a million of whom live abroad, are registered to vote in the third election since Kosovo declared independence in 2008.
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