The resolution would for the first time have condemned the Palestinian resistance group Hamas, which governs Gaza.
Following the US move to open its embassy in Jerusalem, Israel is pressing the Trump administration to "recognise its sovereignty over the Golan Heights to end the historic controversy."
The vote came after weeks of urgent discussions that had highlighted deep divisions in the UN's most powerful body about how to respond to the bloodshed in Gaza.
A French-drafted resolution was adopted which will lead to the deployment of a 5,000-strong African force in the Sahel region to fight militants.
Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas called on the international community to recognise Palestine as a state, and repeated that a one-state solution would be "apartheid."
The Turkish foreign minister said 37,500 people had already left the Syrian city and evacuations could be completed by Wednesday.
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