Before the British allowed European Zionists to colonise Palestine, its chief idealogue, Theodor Herzl, attempted to buy the land from the Ottomans.
New adverts promoted by Orthodox Jewish groups have compared Israeli Reform Jews to dogs, sparking outcry from progressives.
In light of the recent US-sponsored Bahrain conference, a prominent Lebanese leader urged pro-Israel Gulf leadership to take lessons from the Ottoman rulers who refused to surrender Palestine to Zionists for material gains.
Structural discrimination against Jewish people was a norm from the Middle Ages to the19th and 20th century Europe, but such institutional practices weren't common in the Middle East. We examine the origins of anti-Semitism.
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