A new NATO guiding blueprint says Russia threatens security, peace and stability in the "Euro-Atlantic area", while it adds that Beijing's closer ties to Moscow go against Western interests.
NATO leaders have said Russia poses a "direct threat" to the Western alliance, decrying Moscow's military offensive against Ukraine.
A NATO summit in Madrid agreed on Wednesday to a new guiding blueprint that said Russia "is the most significant and direct threat to allies' security and to peace and stability in the Euro-Atlantic area".
"We cannot discount the possibility of an attack against allies' sovereignty and territorial integrity," the document, updated for the first time since 2010, said.
In a bid to counter Russia, leaders agreed to bolster their forces in eastern Europe. "Allies have committed to deploy additional robust in-place combat-ready forces on our eastern flank," the summit statement said.
It called out Russia for what it termed "appalling cruelty" that has "caused immense human suffering and massive displacements, disproportionately affecting women and children" in Ukraine.
NATO leaders have funnelled billions of dollars of arms to Ukraine and faced appeals from President Volodymyr Zelenskyy for more artillery.
Alliance chief Jens Stoltenberg announced a new joint package of non-lethal support, including secure communications equipment and anti-drone systems.
The assistance will also extend to training Ukrainian forces to pivot to more modern Western weapons over the longer term. "Ukraine can count on us for as long as it takes," Stoltenberg said.
President Joe Biden announces US military air, sea and land reinforcements of NATO forces in Europe. TRT World's Simon McGregor-Wood has more from Madrid pic.twitter.com/0V3TmXDHfm— TRT World Now (@TRTWorldNow) June 29, 2022
Eye on China
In a first, NATO also said China's might challenges the alliance and Beijing's closer ties to Moscow went against Western interests.
"The People's Republic of China’s (PRC) stated ambitions and coercive policies challenge our interests, security and values," NATO's guiding blueprint said.
"It strives to subvert the rules-based international order, including in the space, cyber and maritime domains."
The strategic concept also accused China of targeting NATO members with its "malicious hybrid and cyber operations and its confrontational rhetoric".
Leading NATO power the United States has pushed for the alliance to pay greater attention to China, despite reluctance from some allies to switch attention away from the focusing on Europe.
In a sign of the increasing concerns about China, the leaders from Asian partners Japan and South Korea were attending a NATO summit for the first time.